Cupules A cupule is a cup-shaped hollow, pounded out of a rock surface horizontal, inclined or even vertical. Typically found in groups, varying in number from half a dozen to several hundreds, they can be found in random groupings or in geometric patterns. Although many examples of cupules are the result of geological or climatic forces, archeologists have discovered thousands of prehistoric cupule-sites spread across every continent except Antarctica. See, for instance, the La Ferrassie Cave Cupules. For reasons no one understands, cupule-creation was a major form of artistic expression during the Stone Age, and – rather surprisingly – a form which has been largely ignored by many art historians as well as archeologists. Recently, the world famous archeologist Robert G. Bednarik has been drawing attention to cupules as a creative phenomenon of prehistory, but even he concedes that their cultural significance remains a mystery. He also makes the point that part of the reason for the lack of attention paid to these strange hollows, is that some experts don’t even see them as art. In any event, they are worth checking out, not least because they were popular with so many Paleolithic artists!

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It is an essential site for anyone whose ancestors served in the Commonwealth forces during those wars. The homepage of the Cork Genealogical Society is an excellent resource for those whose ancestors came from County Cork. The web site has advice about genealogical research in the Cork area and links to a number of useful sites including some created by members of the society.

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Like its predecessor the Pleistocene, the Holocene epoch is a geological period, and its name derives from the Greek words “holos”, whole or entire and “kainos”, new , meaning “entirely recent”. It is divided into 4 overlapping periods: Prehistoric Culture The longest phase of Stone Age culture – known as the Paleolithic period – is a hunter-gatherer culture which is usually divided into three parts: After this comes a transitional phase called the Mesolithic period sometimes known as epipaleolithic , ending with the spread of agriculture, followed by the Neolithic period the New Stone Age which witnessed the establishment of permanent settlements.

The Stone Age ends as stone tools become superceded by the new products of bronze and iron metallurgy, and is followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age. All periods are approximate.

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One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there would be many crossovers and detours between them. However the time line is followed, clearly wine and history have greatly influenced one another. Fossil vines, million-years-old, are the earliest scientific evidence of grapes.

The earliest written account of viniculture is in the Old Testament of the Bible which tells us that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine. As cultivated fermentable crops, honey and grain are older than grapes, although neither mead nor beer has had anywhere near the social impact of wine over recorded time. This Princess, having lost favor with the King, attempted to poison herself by eating some table grapes that had “spoiled” in a jar.

She became intoxicated and giddy and fell asleep. When she awoke, she found the stresses that had made her life intolerable had dispersed. Returning to the source of her relief, her subsequent conduct changed so remarkably that she regained the King’s favor. He shared his daughter’s discovery with his court and decreed an increase in the production of “spoiled” grapes

Drombeg stone circle

The term “Mesolithic art” refers to all arts and crafts created between the end of the Paleolithic Ice Age 10, BCE and the beginning of farming, with its cultivation and animal husbandry. The length of this interim “Mesolithic” period varied region by region, according to how long it took for agriculture to become established now that the Ice Age was over. The Mesolithic is the first era of the Holocene epoch, which succeeded the Pleistocene, and it ushered in a new approach to Stone Age art:

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Etymology[ edit ] The name of the city is very ancient and several etymological theories have been proposed as an explanation to its meaning. The most popular one maintains that the name of the city is a remainder from the Pelasgian language, i. The obverse depicts the forepart of a wolf, alluding to Apollo Lykeios , the patron-god of the city. The A on the reverse is simply the initial of Argos. As a strategic location on the fertile plain of Argolis, Argos was a major stronghold during the Mycenaean era.

In classical times Argos was a powerful rival of Sparta for dominance over the Peloponnese, but was eventually shunned by other Greek city-states after remaining neutral during the Greco-Persian Wars. There is evidence of continuous settlement in the area starting with a village about years ago in the late Neolithic , located on the foot of Aspida hill. Its creation is attributed to Phoroneus , with its first name having been Phoronicon Asty, or the city of Phoroneus.

The historical presence of the Pelasgian Greeks in the area can be witnessed in the linguistic remainders that survive up to today, such as the very name of the city and “Larisa”, the name of the city’s castle located on the hill of the name. It also benefitted from its proximity to lake Lerna , which, at the time, was at a distance of one kilometre from the south end of Argos.

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a very early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis. Argos experienced its greatest period of expansion and power under the energetic 7th century BC ruler King Pheidon.

Spartan dominance is thought to have been interrupted following the Battle of Hyssii in BC, in which Argive troops defeated the Spartans in a hoplite battle. Moreover, at least 25 celebrations took place in the city, in addition to a regular local products exhibition.

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As well as tree planting ceremonies, the range of events can include forest and woodland walks, nature trails, workshops, woodturning displays, listening to the trees and what lives in the trees. Talks, tree climbing, broadcasts, launches, poetry readings, exhibitions, dramas, free trees donated by Coillte. Don’t forget to register your event! To ensure maximum exposure and promotion for your event, please submit your event details by 20th February. The Tree Council will also be providing Cork County Council with a number of saplings that can be used by local groups, schools and communities as part of their Tree planting events.

The most popular Tourist Attractions in Ireland are listed on this page. They are divided into ‘free’ and ‘pay-for’ venues and represent the best things to do in Ireland for visitors.

WonderHowTo Unless you like boxed wine, your wine bottles are going to either be sealed with a cork or a screw cap, the latter of which should not be frowned upon , especially if it’s white wine. However, most wineries still prefer corks over screw caps, and that means you’ll need a corkscrew. If your corkscrew is missing, or don’t have it on hand, don’t worry—there are many different ways to open the bottle without getting tiny cork crumbs in the wine.

Use Some Tools As long as you can find a toolbox, you can get a bottle of wine open with a screw, screwdriver, and hammer. Stick the screw into the cork, then use the screwdriver to screw it in further. Leave about one inch of the screw out of the cork. Then, grab your hammer and, using the end not the head , you can pull both the screw and cork out of the bottle itself. This works best with bigger screws with large threads. Push It with a Wooden Spoon A wooden spoon with a long, thin handle is the perfect instrument to shove the cork right into the bottle and free your wine, according to Food Mob Bites.

Remove any foil covering, and apply pressure to the top of the cork.

Drombeg stone circle

Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted.

Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition.

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This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in While some Jerusalem tombs from the late Second Temple period boasted round disk-shaped rolling stones, it was more common to seal tombs with cork-shaped stones, such as the one pictured here. The archaeological evidence suggests that the tomb of Jesus—the unused tomb of Joseph of Arimathea—would have been sealed with a cork-shaped stone.

What kind of stone sealed the tomb of Jesus? Was it a round disk-shaped stone or a square cork-shaped stone? While both kinds of blocking stones are attested in Jerusalem tombs from the time of Jesus , square cork-shaped stones are much, much more common than round disk-shaped ones. In fact, of the more than Second Temple-period burial caves around Jerusalem examined by archaeologist Amos Kloner, only four have been discovered with disk-shaped blocking stones.

These four elegant Jerusalem tombs belonged to the wealthiest—even royal—families, such as the tomb of Queen Helena of Adiabene. Archaeology therefore suggests that the tomb of Jesus would have had a cork-shaped blocking stone. Is this confirmed or contested by the Biblical text? His careful analysis of the Greek grammar reveals a detail from the Gospel of John that supports the idea that the tomb of Jesus was indeed sealed with a cork-shaped stone. In our free eBook Easter: Exploring the Resurrection of Jesus , expert Bible scholars and archaeologists offer in-depth research and reflections on this important event.

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